مقایسۀ کانی نگاری سفال دورۀ مس وسنگ میانی زاگرس مرتفع با مناطق خوزستان و فارس

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری باستان شناسی، گروه باستان شناسی، دانشکدۀ ادبیات و علوم انسانی، دانشگاه تهران، تهران، ایران

2 دانشیار گروه باستان شناسی، دانشکدۀ ادبیات و علوم انسانی، دانشگاه شهرکرد، شهرکرد، ایران.

چکیده

‌در سال‌های اخیر در بررسی‌های مختلفی که در منطقۀ چهارمحال‌وبختیاری و در نقاطی مانند فارسان، اردل و میانکوه صورت‌گرفته، شمار زیادی محوطه‌ مربوط به دورۀ مس‌وسنگ یافت‌شده است؛ از سطح این محوطه‌ها، سفال‌هایی به‌دست‌آمده که پژوهش‌های نخستین روی این سفال‌ها نشان‌دهندۀ ارتباط و نزدیکی بسیار زیاد سفال منطقه با سفال‌های دورۀ مس‌وسنگ در فارس (باکون الف و ب)، خوزستان (شوشان میانه و جدید) و تاحدودی مرکز فلات و غرب ایران است؛ ازاین‌رو، استفاده از روش‌های آزمایشگاهی برای مطالعۀ این گونه‌های سفالی ضروری به‌نظر می‌رسید تا ابتدا به فن ساخت و برخی ویژگی‌های فنی این گونه‌های سفالی پی‌برده شود و هم‌چنین مشخص شود که این سفال‌ها علاوه‌بر شباهت‌های ظاهری مانند: رنگ، نقش و فرم، ازنظر ساختاری و فنی نیز با نمونه‌های هم‌زمان مناطق مجاور شباهت دارند یا خیر(؟)؛ چراکه میزان تأثیرپذیری مردمان زاگرس مرتفع از مناطق هم‌جوار در این مورد مهم می‌تواند ما را درپی بردن به ارتباطات اجتماعی، فرهنگی و اقتصادی (برهم‌کنش‌های) ساکنان این منطقه در عصر مس‌وسنگ یاری کند. به‌همین‌دلیل برای رسیدن به اهداف موردنظر، تلفیقی از روش‌های میدانی، کتابخانه‌ای و آزمایشگاهی به‌کار بسته شد و تعداد 32 نمونۀ سفالی که از سطح محوطه‌های پیش‌ازتاریخی منطقۀ چهارمحال‌وبختیاری، خوزستان و فارس جمع‌آوری‌شده با انجام مطالعات پتروگرافی مورد تجزیه‌وتحلیل قرارگرفت. درنهایت با بررسی ویژگی‌های فنی و کانی‌شناسی این نمونه‌ها، مشخص شد که سفال دورۀ مس‌وسنگ میانی زاگرس مرتفع دست‌ساز بوده، پخت کافی دارند و از مواد معدنی به‌عنوان مادۀ چسبانندۀ آن‌ها استفاده‌شده است، علاوه‌بر این‌که سفال این دورۀ هم‌چون ویژگی‌های ظاهری، در فن ساخت و ویژگی‌های فنی هم شباهت بسیار به سفال هم‌زمان فارس و خوزستان داشته و درواقع این نمونه‌ها با تأثیرپذیری از سفال باکون و شوشان میانه و جدید ساخته‌شده است.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Petrographic Study of The Middle Chalcolithic Pottery’s in High Zagros and Comparison with Khuzestan and Fars

نویسندگان [English]

  • Fatemeh Hajinorouzi 1
  • Mahmood Heydarian 2
  • Alireza Khosrowzadeh 2
1 PhD student in Archeology, Department of Archaeology, Faculty of Literature and Humanities, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran.
2 Associate Professor, Department of Archaeology, Faculty of Literature and Human Sciences, Shahrekord University, Shahrekord, Iran.
چکیده [English]

In recent years, in various surveys carried out in the Chaharmahal and Bakhtiari area, a large number of Chalcolithic settlements have been found; From the surface of these settlements, some potteries are obtained which earlier studies of them suggests the close relation between the ceramics of the region under study with Chalcolithic material in Fars (Bakun A and B), Khuzestan (Middle and Late Susiana) and some extent from the central and western Iranian plateau. Therefore, it seemed necessary to use laboratory methods , To begin with the technique of construction and some technical features of these types of pottery and It is also possible to determine whether these pottery, in addition to its apparent similarities, such as color, motif and form, are structurally and technically similar to simultaneous samples of adjacent areas. Because the extent of the influences of the peoples of the high Zagros from the neighboring areas on this important issue can help us to understand the social, cultural, and economic connections (Interactions) of the inhabitants of the area during the Chalcolithic Age. For this reason, a combination of field, library, and laboratory methods were employed to achieve these goals and A total of 32 pottery samples collected from the pre-historic sites of Chaharmahal and Bakhtiari, Khuzestan and Fars were analyzed using petrographic studies. Finally, by examining the technical and mineralogical characteristics of these samples, it was found that the Middle Chalcolithic Pottery of High Zagros was handmade and fired at sufficient temperatures, and minerals have been used as their temper. In addition to the ceramics of this period, as in appearance, in technical and technical features, they were very similar to those of Fars and Khuzestan and in fact, these specimens were made with the influence of Bakun pottery and Middle and Late Susiana.
Introduction
Manufacturing high-quality ceramics and creating various motifs on vessels during the Chalcolithic Age, and especially in the Middle chalcolithic, became popular in different regions; Especially in areas such as Khuzestan and Fars, which are important pre-historic cultural regions of Iran. In recent years, numerous surveys have been carried out in the Chaharmahal and Bakhtiari region and in parts such as Farsan, Ardal and Miankoh, and many Middle Chalcolithic sites have been found, and many of this pottery has Early studies have found that they resemble pottery in the adjacent regions. Despite this diversity and distribution, a few research has been done on these pottery types and the Pottery of this period is less well known in terms of technical characteristics. While laboratory studies on these potteries, in addition to understanding its construction technique and technology, can be achieved to a great extent through the communication and even cultural developments of the period under study, compared with the pottery of the neighboring areas. In addition to accessing this information, it can also provide the basis for the origin of these pottery species (Of course, with additional tests).
Questions & Hypothesis: 1- What is the middle clay pottery of Chaharmahal and Bakhtiari in terms of texture, fired temperature and constituent elements? 2- Are these pottery species similar in appearance to color and motif painted and in technical characteristics similar to those of Fars and Khuzestan?
 1- The pottery studied seems to be handmade, often having a soft texture, painted surface, fired at sufficient temperatures, and minerals have been used as their Temper. 2- It also seems that in addition to the apparent similarity, the technical and construction features are similar to those of Fars and Khuzestan. In fact, the inhabitants of the high Zagros have been influenced by these two areas, which are the origins of the Bakun and Middle and Late Susiana pottery, respectively.
In order to achieve the objectives of the study, 32 potteries collected from the prehistoric sites of Chaharmahal and Bakhtiari, Khuzestan and Fars were analyzed by petrographic studies, In order to examine the hypotheses of this study in this way.
 
Identified Traces
The main target area of this research is Chaharmahal and Bakhtiari province located in the central part of the Zagros Mountains (Banitalebi, 2010: 14). Considering the very similarities of the pottery of this region with neighboring regions namely Khuzestan (southwest of Iran), Fars (south of Zagros) and similarity of some pottery samples of the north of the region with coinciding ceramics of Central Plateau, Khuzestan, Fars and Isfahan as control areas, are intended. In spite of the follow- up and lack of permission for sampling the plateau areas, a sample of the central plateau and Isfahan has not been selected for testing in this study.
in line with the objectives of this project, 13 samples of Middle Chalcolithic pottery from 4 sites (Kian Tepe, Qal,e Afgan, Gard-e Chellegah and Jamalo) were distributed in different geographical directions of Chaharmahal province and the area’s most settlements  during the study period, Have Compared with 9 pieces of pottery from Khuzestan (Chogha Mish and Tall-e Geser) and 10 pieces of Fars (Tall-e Bakun, Tall-e Gap and Tall-e Nokhoudi), In the selection of Khuzestan and Fars areas, the areas that were located in the nomad movement and of course indexed and excavated.
The petrographic method was used to achieve the goals of this study. In this method, a thin section of stone or ceramic object is made, This section is so thin that it can pass light and By placing it under the geological microscope (polarizer) they study the minerals in it. Because minerals that form rocks or in pottery in polarized light have different properties and colors, petrographers can distinguish them from one another (Ellis, 2000: 458). In this study, after preparing thin sections, the microscopic study of the pottery was performed with” James Swift” polarized binocular microscope. The magnification used in this study was 4x, in addition to identifying pottery components and compounds present in the texture, temper, fired temperature of pottery and comparing properties of pottery with adjacent areas.
 
Conclusion
After microscopic studies on the samples of pottery in all three regions of Chaharmahal and Bakhtiari, Khuzestan and Fars and comparing the results of these studies, it was found that potteries of Middle Chalcolithic of Chaharmahal and Bakhtiari period are handmade, They have silty texture and well-fired, Quartz (the main sand-forming mineral) has been used as a temper. It was also found that the pottery of this region not only looks similar to the patterns of neighboring areas such as Fars and Khuzestan in terms of appearance and motifs painted but also has many similarities in terms of technical features to those of pottery. Pottery in all three regions had a similar situation in quality and kneading. Structurally, some samples of Chaharmahal and Bakhtiari were similar to Khuzestan samples and others were similar to Fars samples. Quartz, calcite and Fe-oxide constituted the major constituents of the pottery in all three regions and Quartz has been used as a temper. Also, in all three areas, the temperature of the kiln for firing is about 800 C0 and this temperature is sufficient for firing high- quality pottery. In fact, the construction of the Middle Chalcolithic Age pottery in Chaharmahal and Bakhtiari was quite influenced by neighboring cultures such as Bakun and Susa.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Middle Chalcolithic
  • Chaharmahal and Bakhtiari
  • mineralogy
  • Petrography
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