عنوان مقاله [English]
After the discovery of handicrafts in Iran in recent decades, the nature and use of these works has always been discussed. A very faint and vague trace of the era of the emergence of these relics, has made it difficult for researchers and enthusiasts of rock art to be accurate and absolute chronology and use. On the other hand, the rocky and cave nature of these neighborhoods has led most scholars to attribute them to the cult of Mehr. However, recent studies on the rocky outcrop of the village of Varjavi (known as the Imamzadeh of the Infallibles or the Temple of Mehr), which is somewhat richer in terms of archaeological data, provide more reasons for attributing these works to the Islamic period. However, in-depth and accurate research requires archaeological and scientific speculation. In this research, based on spatial analysis and comparative data, in order to clarify the chronology and use of the present building, an attempt has been made to provide points and archaeological knowledge that has not been paid much attention before. According to the authors, according to these points, a more accurate date and use for this work can be presented and it can be examined from new angles and with an analysts’ point of view. According to this study according to studies and comparisons, the initial use of the Varjavi complex of a Buddhist temple belonging to the patriarchal period is suggested,which after the religious reforms of Ghazan Khan becomes a monastery. Accordingly, attributing this area to the ritual of love is far from the mind. Finally although the chronology of other rock shrines needs independent research, in terms of dating and the relative use of the handicraft spaces of the Infallible Imamzadeh of Maragheh, it may be helpful for these works. Research questions and hypotheses.
Keywords: Handicraft Collection of Imamzadeh Masoom, Handicrafts Architecture, Chronology, Use, Buddhist Temple.
In the northwestern region of Iran, a number of Troglodyte Architecture temples have been identified and introduced so far. One of the largest rock shrines in the region is the shrine of Imamzadeh Masoom Maraghei. This complex was first introduced as the Mehri Templ e in the 1950s. Basically, the distinctive feature of the Mithraic temples in Europe is the fact that any architectural space created in Iran with this style and context has been introduced as a Mehri temple, while there is no other evidence in Mithraism. Roman artifacts found have not been identified. shrine of Imamzadeh Masoom is no exception to this rule. According to the theories presented, the date of creation of the complex is between a Mehri temple, a Zoroastrian fire temple, a monastery and an Islamic mosque, and even a floating shrine, and experts and scholars have mentioned different dates for this building. In this article, an attempt has been made to present an archaeological cognition with a new and more detailed view of the Imamzadeh Masoum collection and relying on spatial analysis and comparative data, and a series of corrections should be made in the previous writings; Therefore, the correct understanding of this collection and the interpretation of the time of its creation in the chronological framework and the analysis of the use of its spaces can be a suitable field of study for the interpretation of shrines in neighboring areas that have been studied or researched in the future.
Research Question & Hypotheses: This research seeks to answer two basic questions related to the collection of the Troglodyte Architecture Imamzadeh Masoom building: What was the relative chronology and time of formation of the collection of works of Varjavi Maragheh? 2) What is the use of the spaces in this collection? The hypotheses raised in line with the above questions are: The time of creation of this collection of handicrafts based on the principles of relative chronology, which is done comparatively, is related to the patriarchal period that there is evidence of this claim in the collection of Imamzadeh Masum The direction of conducting the research has been studied and its use as a gathering place and place of worship for Buddhist s living in Maragheh city and the scientific complex of the observatory.
Research Method: In this research, in the first place, an attempt will be made to introduce the collection with an archaeological approach and in a descriptive method, citing the collected and documented data as well as library information, and then with analytical methods and A comparative chronology and its use should be presented in a comparative approach along with the space archeology approach.
The village of Varjavi, which is called Var-Övi in the native language (Turkish), is located in the province of East Azerbaijan, 6 km southeast of the city of Maragheh. This Troglodyte Architecture complex is located in the geographical coordinates of 609704.50 meters east and 4132468.63 meters north and under the historical cemetery of Varjavi village. This collection of rocks was first registered with the registration number 788 with the name of Imamzadeh Mullah Masoom Maraghei and again in 1977 with the name of Mehri shrine and with the registration number 3/1556 in the list of national monuments.
With the coming to power of the Ilkhanids in the 7th century AH and their domination of the city of Maragheh, under their political-religious support, new motivations for the development and prosperity of the city began and they were a positive reflection of these activities to achieve long-term goals. They used their political-religious. Hulagu and the successors of the Buddhist religion gained spiritual and scientific support by building shrines for Buddhist and Christian religions. Ghazan Khan’s change of religious policy led to the unfinished and destroyed many Buddhist shrines in the region. Religious ideas after Ghazan Khan caused the shrine of Imamzadeh Masoom to change its use and in the next period to be in a haze of ambiguity in terms of function and antiquity. According to the latest written documents, different functions and names have been attributed to this collection during the Qajar period, which are certainly fake letters. Architecturally, a comparison of the Imamzadeh Masoum handicraft with a collection of this kind shows that this building can be measured with many Buddhist rock temples in terms of map; Also, some architectural and decorative elements of Imamzadeh Masoum collection have been influenced by a number of buildings of the patriarchal period. The shrine of Imamzadeh Masoom became an Islamic monastery after the religious reforms of Ghazan Khan, which changed during the eighth century AH; And especially the Safavid period has caused the abandonment of Sufi beliefs and monastic customs. So that in the Safavid period, the shrine was proposed as the tomb of the Infallible Imamzadeh of Maragheh and its followers, and today it has a special sanctity with the names of the saints and the Imamzadeh of the Infallible Imam.
The result obtained from this research is only the result of examining the visual evidence in collection, spatial analysis with reference to the structures in the spaces and structural study in the spatial-historical area (historical-political context) of Imamzadeh Masoum collection; It is also written data; Therefore, in order to discover and read the accumulated underground spaces, to study the size of the complex and to date it more accurately, field operations are needed, so to achieve this purpose, scientific archaeological excavations are suggested.