عنوان مقاله [English]
After the death of Ahmad ibn Ismail (295-301 AH), at the same time Ishaq ibn Ahmad (301 AH), the great of the Samani family and Nasr ibn Ahmad (301-331 AH), emir Ahmad’s young son rose to claim Emirate, which eventually led to the infighting and victory of Nasr. Since historical books have been widely dispersed, coin science can provide researchers with valuable information to address these discrepancies. emir Ishaq is the name of the late emir, also known as Ismail ibn Ahmad (279-295 AH) and dates to 301 AH. He was beaten in Samarqand. The main questions of this study are: 1. How can a part of the history of that era be reconstructed by using the copper coin of emir Ishaq (issued by Samarqand in 301 AH)? 2. emir’s name is dead, why has Ismail insisted on this type of coin, and what role did Ishaq have in legitimizing it? In addition to introducing this first coinage index, this paper seeks to reconstruct and identify the causes of some events along with the cognitive cointegration data along with historical texts, using a cognitive archaeological approach and a historical approach. The main result of this study was the issue of legitimizing the Emir of Ishaq from the Baghdad Caliphate, which can be concluded that this coin was minted during the process of legitimizing the Emirate of Ishaq by the Abbasid caliphate, and since the coinage was considered a sign of power. And his legitimacy for the Emirate was also in the offing, bringing the name of the emir down to the coins could guarantee Ishaq’s legitimacy at that time.
Keywords: Ishaq Ibn Ahmad, Samarqand, Numismatics, Samanids, Nasr Ibn Ahmad.
After the assassination of Ahmad ibn Ismail in the month of Jumada al-Thani in 301 AH, widespread chaos spread over the Samanid realm, And the pole of Samarqand and the establishment of the great Samani family, the brother of emir Ismail, Ishaq Ibn Ahmad, which finally ended with the victory of the Bukhara pole over Samarqand, in favor of the new emir, Nasr. While we were studying this topic, while reviewing the auction booklet of “Stephen Album Rare Coins” Institute, copper coins by emir Ishaq Samani, attracted attention. The auction booklet also placed this coin in the category of rare coins (RRR) in terms of quantity and considered it to be related to the first days of Isaac’s claim to Samanid territory; “A copper coin from the city of Samarqand, multiplied in the year 301 AH”. So, given that historical books provide scattered and different information, especially the time of this event, this copper scales, along with other coins that were struck at the height of the chaos, can be used as A valuable document should be placed next to other books and archeological data and clarify some dark points of the history of this period.
Research Questions: This research raises two main questions: 1. How can a part of the history of that era be reconstructed using the copper coin of emir Ishaq (Samarqand minted in 301 AH)? 2..Why did the name of the late emir, Ishmael, become silver on this type of coin, and what role did it play in giving Isaac legitimacy? In this research, perceptual archeological approaches and historical approach were used to examine the ancient data, ie coins. Perceptual archeology is the study of the way of thinking in the past, which discovers mental products through the remnants of the past. The historical approach is the reconstruction of the human past based on the critical analysis of historical texts, which is finally evaluated with archaeological data and provides the final analysis. In fact, the use of perceptual archeology and historical approach in the Samanid era, which has left both material evidence and historical texts, can be the main and appropriate basis.
Initially, the purpose of creating coins was to facilitate exchanges and trade, but after a short time, coins became a symbol of ethnicity, sovereignty, independence, etc .; The Samanid Emirate and other contemporary Islamic emirates were not outside the scope of this argument; But it goes without saying that at that time, the permission of the Caliph of Baghdad was a prerequisite for minting coins. The coin in question is the copper coin of the year 301 AH. And it is beaten in Samarqand that the words: “Allah / Muhammad / Rasoul / Allah / Ishaq” and on the margin of the phrase: “Mimma Amr bi al-Emir Ismail Ibn Ahmad Abqah Allah”. Has become silver; On the center of the back of this coin is written the phrase: “La Ilaha Illa / Allah Vahdahu / La Sharik lah” And on the margin of it, the phrase: “Bism Allah Zuriba Haza al-Fals bi Samarqand Sinat Ehedi w thulth Mea’a” is written. There is no information about the division of the coins of the copper coins in the Samanid period, so it is clear that they were generally called “Fals”; Even in terms of weight and scale, those coins are indistinguishable, because they scatter in weights between 2 and 4.5 grams, perhaps these weights can be considered local and regional. The weight of the coin studied in this article is 2.82 grams according to the common weights. The name of emir Ishaq is mentioned on the center of the coin and Ismail’s name is mentioned on the margin of the deceased emir, but what was the reason for this action? According to the authors, the coin was minted during the process of legitimizing Isaac by the caliphate. Since the minting of coins was a sign of gaining power and his legitimacy for the emirate was underway, mentioning the name of the previous emir on the coins could have guaranteed Isaac’s legitimacy at that time.
In the past, one of the purposes of coinage, which later became the most important goal, was to show the authority and consolidate the power of the coin owner. In addition to two important and common features of Samani coins, namely the date (301 AH) and the place of minting (Samarqand), this coin bears the name of emir Ismail Samani after six years of his death, as the main emir of the emirate and the name of emir Ishaq. The title of dependent emir has taken its place; Taking into account these features and the help of other historical texts, an important part of the political history of that era was explained and reconstructed, so this coin should be considered the representative of the first coin of Isaac after the claim of the Samanid Emirate. It should be noted that one of the pillars of emir Samani’s legitimacy at that time was the approval of the caliphate of Baghdad, and its appearance was revealed by mentioning the name of the caliph in the sermon and coins; Normally, when the principal emir of the Samanid emirate gives a territorial command to an emir, the emir emperor displays the name of the principal emir on the coins to indicate his legitimacy; It can now be understood that Ishaq in the early days of his emirate, when he had not yet received the approval of the Abbasid caliph, showed his legitimacy by naming the late emir Ismail. So the main knot that was untied by this coin was the issue of legitimizing Ishaq and its stages by the Caliphate of Baghdad, which can be concluded that this coin was struck during the process of legitimizing the Emirate of emir Ishaq by the Abbasid Caliphate. Since the minting of coins was a sign of gaining power and his legitimacy for the emirate was underway, mentioning the name of the previous emir on the coins could have guaranteed Isaac’s legitimacy at that time.