عنوان مقاله [English]
In the cuneiform texts of Sargon II, the king of neo-Assyrian period, the ancient toponym of Karalla/Karalli/Karallu has been mentioned several times as a territory whose inhabitants resisted against Assyrian invaders. So far, researchers have suggested several different options for locating this toponym, especially in the zone between the cities of Sardasht, Marivan and Kamyaran. The discovery of a new clue by the author indicates that after centuries, the name of the mentioned area has been preserved on a native genotype of pomegranate of Uramanat region. The mentioned pomegranate which is called Karalli, is native to Uramanat and its physical features are different from other genotypes of pomegranate in the same region. This new finding, in addition to Tang-i var inscription, largely confirms the possibility of the adaptation of ancient Karalla/ Karalli with modern Uramanat (Kurdish Hawraman), and so confirms the opinion of those researchers who used to seek for ancient Karalli within Uramanat region. Uramanat is a special geographical area covered with high and steep mountains and narrow and deep valleys. It is very rich in water sources, but rarely has plains and flat lands. This natural feature, which distinguishes Uramanat from its neighboring areas, was a main reason that foreigners, including the Assyrian warlike kings could not gain permanent and easy access to the region throughout history. Regarding the available evidence, it seems that some sites in the mentioned Uramanat region which have occupation layers of Iron age III, have links in some aspects with the material culture of the old inhabitants of the ancient Karalla. Future excavations in Uramanat will undoubtedly promote a good leap in our knowledge about Karalla and forced Assyrian presence in western Iran.
Keywords: Neo-Assyrian Period, Karalla, Uramanat, Karali Pomegranate, Tangi-var.
Karalla was a well-known ancient toponym in the eastern regions of Assyria, located in the west of modern Iran whose name has often been recorded in the Assyrian inscriptions as Karalla, and sometimes in other forms such as Karalli, Karallu, Karallum, Karllaia, and Karallaja (see: ARAB II: 10, 23, 79. 703; Saggs, 1958: 196; Parpola 1970: 200; Zadok, 2002: 96). All the available inscriptions of the New Assyrian period that refer to this toponym belong to the reign of Sargon II (721-705 BC). It is clear in at least in three cases that the Assyrians’ campaign to the land of Karalla was due to the revolt of the residents of that region against the Assyrians. So far, significant efforts have been made by various researchers to locate the ancient Karalli based on the Neo-Assyrian inscriptions. For example, F. Josti located the ancient Karalla between Daghestan and Ghilan; E. Wright located it in the upper parts of Sardasht valley (Wright, 1943: 177, map.1); L. Levine located it in the area of Lake Zaribar in Marivan (Levine, 1974: 110), and G Frame located it in the area of Tang-i var inscription in Uramanat (Frame, 2013: 438).
This article aims at opening a new window to the ancient Karalla by introducing a new linguistic clue and adapting it to the archaeological evidence and geographical features of the mentioned region. Our assumption is that the important inscription and relief of Tang-i var which deals with the events of the expedition to Karalla, was erected within the mainland of ancient Karalla. Some of the main questions that this research seeks to answer are:
1. What other evidence, in addition to the relief and inscription of Tang-i var, can be directly related to the ancient Karalla?
2. Based on the available evidence, which of the areas suggested by researchers’ is the most applicable to the Karalla?
3. In what ancient sites and geographical areas the archaeological materials related to the ancient Karalla could be found?
The present study, which has been conducted with a historical approach and a descriptive-analytical method based on the library sources and interrogation with Uramanat natives, aims at finding an appropriate answer to the above questions.
In addition to the Tang-i var inscription whose location in Uramanat area reinforces the possibility of the theory of researchers such as Frame to be correct, there is another interesting clue showing that the ancient Karalla can largely be adapted with today’s Uramanat geographically. While producing more than ten pomegranate genotypes in Uramanat has put this region at the center of one of the most important areas producing this fruit in western Iran, the author, quite coincidentally, found that one of the most favorite pomegranate genotypes in the area is called “Karalli”. However, the name “Karalli” does not have any known and specific roots in the local Hawrami dialect as well as in the well-known Kurdish and Persian language dictionaries. In addition, the natives of this region have no preconceived notions about the meaning of this name. Therefore, the author believes that there is a logical and sound connection between the ancient roots of the word Karalli and its connection with the land of Karalla mentioned in the inscriptions of the neo-Assyrian period. In Assyrian inscriptions the term KUR (land), and in some cases, the term URU (city) is often used before the name of Karalla / Karalli (see Parpola 1970: 200). The author thinks that the name is composed of two parts: Kar + ali, the first part of which is a common spatial prefix, probably meaning city, or the equivalent of the word “karu” meaning trading station in Akkadian and Assyrian languages. (see CAD K, 231 sv kāru A; Oppenheim 1977: 91). But the second part, āli / ālu probably refers to the “ruler of a city” (CAD: ā, 388 see. Ālu).
There are important reasons that show the ancient Karlli is the same modern Uramanat. Firstly, the important inscription and relief of Tang-i var, which deals with the events of the Assyrian expedition to Karalla, erected in Uramanat area. Secondly, in the Assyrian inscription of Tang-i var, a mountain called “Anna” is mentioned, the name of which is probably recoverable in the name of today’s Zinana mountain, on which the inscription is carved. Third, the Tang-i var inscription states that the people of Karalla inhabited in an area of steep mountains, a description perfectly consistent with the mountainous and impassable region of Uramanat. Finally, the author’s study shows that the ancient name has been preserved to this day on a native pomegranate genotype in Uramanat region, known as Karlli. Therefore, the remnants of the Iron Age III settlements in the counties of Paveh, Kamyaran, and the southern part of Marivan, and the southern part of Sanandaj Valley, as well as the northern and northwestern parts of Salas Babajani, Javanroud and Ravansar counties, as well as Some parts of Uramanat around the city of Halabja in Iraqi Kurdistan which are located near the ancient Zamua, are most likely in direct contact with the Karalli and the material culture of the people of that land. This area, which has a special natural geographical boundaries and even in some respects, its own special cultural features, is now known to everyone as Uramanat.