عنوان مقاله [English]
Since the Iron Age is a crossroad between prehistoric and historical Iran, it is of especial archaeological importance. One of the most important findings and discussions of the Iron Age is gray pottery and the issue of its origin and distribution in Iran. In this regard, several theories have been proposed that some consider the beginning of the Iron Age and the emergence of gray pottery as the result of migration and some as internal and as a result of changes in Bronze Ags cultures. One of the significant points of the Iron Age is the Central Plateau of Taleghan region, from this area, 13 Iron Age sites have been identified some of the pottery findings of which in the mentioned period are gray pottery fragments with a time interval of Iron | and ||, which has been less studied so far. The main purpose of this study, while introducing and analyzing the Iron Age settlements in Taleghan region, is to study gray pottery and compare it with other areas of neighboring areas. Questions are: what are the types and distribution patterns of Iron Age sites in Taleghan region? Is the emergence of gray pottery in the Taleghan region the result of settlements with a new culture or was it the process of an evolved culture within the region? Is the gray pottery of Taleghan region the product of an advanced society with the characteristics of complex urban communities, or was it the product of a rural society? The research method was fieldwork by collecting pottery from the surface of the sites and studying it with a descriptive-analytical approach by searching library resources and field activity reports and then the results were presented in historical-analytical manner. The results show that the gray pottery of Taleghan is probably the result of a new settelement and the presence of some signs has strengthened the hypothesis that the gray pottery of this region is the product of nomadic pastoral community or possibly the product of rural pastoral community, has been associated with advanced Central Plateau communities, also the study of species and settlement patterns of Taleghan shows that the general distribution of areas has been in order to meet the needs of nomadic communities.
Keywords: Iron Age. Archaeological Surveys. Settlement. Gray Pottery. Taleghan.
The study of changes in human biological ideas is part of the analysis of harmonization reactions between people and their external environment. The study of habitat and settlement notions requires the study of the extent to which human settlement in relation to the existence of a community and the adaptation and use of technology related to the environment reveals a special situation, thus, biological and settlement archeology provides archaeologists with the opportunity to study the relationships between different communities, business network, exploitation and social organizations (Fagan,2005, 563-564). Research method: the research method was field based by collecting pottery from the surface of the sites and studying it with a descriptive-analytical approch by searching library resources and archaeological field activity reports, and then the results were presented in a historical-analytical manner. Finally, the study of Iron Age sites and pottery in Taleghan region has been done tbrough field studies and documentation based on the two method.
Research Questions and Hypotheses: The questions of this research are: what are the types and distribution pattern of Taleghan area? The emergence of gray pottery in the Taleghan region is the result of settlements with a new culture with the process of an evolved culture within the region? Is the gray pottery of Taleghan region the product of an advanced society with the characteristics of complex urban communities or was it the product of a rural society? Based on the questions posed, these assumptiond are true, that the gray pottery of Taleghan is probably the result of a new settlement and the existence of some sings has strengthened the hypothesis that the gray pottery of the region is the product of a nomadic pastoral community or possibly the product of rural pastoral community associated with advanced Central Plateau communities, have been also the study of species and settlement patterns of Taleghan shows that in general, the distribution of areas in order to meet the needs of nomadic communities.
Research Method: Current archaeological studies, including archaeological surveys can somehow complement past studies; although the surface findings of archaeological surveys have not been very rich, the evidence for some local features, as well as the number og settlements identified during these Iron Age studies, can cast some doubt on the reason for the change in frequency of epoch sites, Iron will help the area, one of the significant points of the Iron Age is the Central Plateau of Taleghan region.
By studding the Iron Age sites of the valley between the mountains of Taleghan, it can be seen that this area in the northern areas of the Central Plateau is one of the cultural areas of the mentioned period. The results showed that one of the most influential factors in the formation of human settlement and geographical communities is the environment, and the study area is no exception to this rule. As mentioned in the text of the article, access to water resources, slope, distance from pasture, distance from settlements and security are effective factors in servival of such communities in livestock nutrition. Taleghan region has been used as a summer resort in hot seasons and seasonally, and since then 13 settlements in the summer pastures of this region have been formed since the Iron Age. The existence of small areas with poor layers and cultural materials, the existence of cemeteries all confirm this claim. Taleghan gray pottery is made in three color ranges: gray, dark gray, light gray and in three materials, hard, medium and delicate. Two whell-making and hand-made techniques have been used in the construction of the mentioned gray pottery collection. The type of decoration is generally geometric in the form of zigzag and vertical horizontal lines. Finally, studies show that the gray pottery of Taleghan was the result of new settlements. The gray pottery of Taleghan is the product of a nomadic pastoral community or, more likely, the product of a rural pastoral community. This statement is proved by different type of utensils specific to livestock communities, most of which are different types of bowls. Also, the study of species and type of distribution and settlement patterns of Taleghan shows that it has generally the areas have been in order to meet the needs of nomadic communities. Existence of signs such as the impassability of Taleghan region, lack of favorable conditions and fertile soil for agriculture and its importance for ranchers, the existence of cemeteries all reinforce this theory.